Using 3D Web Mapping to Model Offshore Archaeology

Ever since I started working in the renewables industry on offshore wind farms over 8yrs ago and had to analyse shipwrecks, I thought about how much more interactive and informative shipwreck analysis would be in 3D. There are many companies out there at the moment who produce the most amazing visualisations, where is the ability to move along a fixed track to view a 2.5D wreck but there is no ability to relate it to anything, no context and normally the cost is extremely high when the data captured is normally geospatial and used within a GIS such as QGIS, ArcGIS or Fledemaus.

Here is an example of the amazing model of the James Eagen Layne created by Fourth Element and the model of the Markgraf Shipwreck by Scapa Flow Wrecks

Please don’t get me wrong, I admire these models and they provide detail and information that would be almost impossible to render in a GIS web map without some serious development and a lot of modelling but technology has progressed. Five years ago I would have said that creating an offshore 3D web map was the thing of dreams, whereas today it is a few clicks of the mouse. Using ESRI software, I was able to combine both terrain and bathymetry, adjust for tide datum differences, import a 3D model and then add links and images to the web map (called a ‘scene’).

The most exciting thing we found in developing this, was the cost and time in implementing such a solution. With the ability to consume data from Sketchup, ESRI 3D Models and even Google Earth models, we can reduce the time which a scene takes to build from weeks to mere hours, the most time consuming part is adding the links & getting the colours nice!! Have a look below at what we created:

[iframe src=”https://cloudciti.es/scenes/SJaI7ZBO/embed&#8221; width=”836″ height=”470″ frameborder=”0″ style=”border: 1px solid whitesmoke” webkitallowfullscreen mozallowfullscreen allowfullscreen></iframe><p><a href=”https://cloudciti.es/SJaI7ZBO”>Wreck of the James Eagen Layne</a> from <a href=”https://cloudciti.es/users/54930bf17b2842080022f175″>Garsdale Design Limited</a> on <a href=”https://cloudcities.io”>CloudCities</a&gt;. ]

The model can be navigated in a similar manner to Google Earth, the model should also be interactive, with the ability to click on areas of the wreck with information returned on the right of the screen. If you look at the bottom left there are a set of icons which I will explain.

Overview of the buttons

Camera Button

 

The camera button, highlighted in green, provides access to the scene bookmarks, click on any of these and the scene will move to the view relating to the text. It will also alter the layers shown to provide the best view (according to the creator)

Animation button

The animation button, highlighted green above, animates the scene by cycling through the bookmarks

Layers buttonThe layers button allows access to the information relayed on the scene. By default, the tidal water is turned off and only one model is shown.

Light Simulation

The light simulation button provides ability to cast shadow and simulate specific times of day. Although not really relevant for an underwater feature, it provides a method for viewing internal features better.

Mobile User Bonus Feature!

For those of you using a mobile device, you will notice one further button:

Cardboard button

Yes, the scene is fully 3D and the viewer fully supports Google Cardboard, so go ahead and have a go!

Future development

This is just the beginning, as you can see this viewer is extremely lightweight and responsive Moving forward, we (Garsdale Design Ltd) are looking to adding further information such as nearby wrecks, more detailed bathymetry, objects which may cause risk such as anchorages and vessel movement in the area. The potential is immense and where this is geographic (hit the map button on the right) you can relate this to a real world location….in future versions we are looking to implementing Admiralty charts and bathymetry maps to view side by side with the site.

Disclaimer

I am not an archaeologist or diver! – Data is sourced from open data sources (Inspire, EA Lidar, Wikipedia) with the exception of the model(s) which were built by myself from images and multibeam data. Photos were obtained from Promare, on the Liberty 70 project – Contains public sector information licensed under the Open Government Licence v3.0, This data is not to be used for navigation or diving.

For further information or to ask how Garsdale Design can assist you, please do not hesitate to contact me.

Presentation of Coordinate systems

We use web maps every day and never question why there is no coordinate system reference, yet our paper maps have more coordinate system information than the page can handle. Is it about time we reviewed our presentation of the map?

We [Geographers] create amazing worlds to be explored and yet when we put it on paper we feel the need to fill an eigth of the page with detail on the exact projected coordinate system used. Is this overkill or justified?

I am undecided. For years I have toiled and presented legal maps with every detail down to the false eastings & northings because it seemed to be the professional thing to do. It was the way I learned to present legal mapping and it “feels” right.

Correct practice?

The past few years has seen more use of web mapping and online provision of geospatial information, one thing that is never present though, is the coordinate system used. What is more surprising is that no-one ever asks. It is automatically assumed that it is all correct. Here are a few examples: Google Maps, Bing Maps, or even the British Geological Survey…The point here is that there might be coordinates, but in what coordinate system? What is the transformation? What is the level of accuracy?

Great online map but what coordinate system? What are the distances?

I’m now in a quandry and questioning the best practice moving forward. The logical answer is to provide the Coordinate Reference System or SRS/EPSG (delete as necessary) code to the online web map so that any allusion to location can be derived from the coordiante system information. What about paper maps/PDF outpu though? Do we NEED all that junk on the page if we are referencing the CRS/SRS/EPSG code? Surely by moving to this protocol we would be providing more space for our works of art…I mean maps.

Please vote you feelings on the poll below and I am happy to respond to any comment – Nick D

[wpdevart_poll id=”1″ theme=”12″]